Standard 3 - Field & Clinical Practice
3c - Candidates Development and Demonstration
1. What are the entry requirements for clinical practice? How many candidates are eligible for clinical practice each semester or year? How many complete successfully?
The entry requirements for the Student Teaching Internship clinical practice course is as follows: acceptance into the Cedarville University Teacher Education Program, successful completion Methods I block, successful completion of the Methods II block, successful completion of the Praxis II Principles and Learning exam (per licensure context), successful completion of the Praxis II Content exam (per licensure context).
See Standard 3 section 7 for chart illustrating internship success rate. Information provided by Cedarville University registrar's office.
2. What is the role of candidates, university supervisors, and school-based faculty in assessing candidate performance and reviewing the results during clinical practice?
Clinical experience assessments.
The clinical experience is supervised by university faculty with a minimum of five visits per candidate. Evaluations are based upon our formative and summative forms used for all clinical experiences. Cooperating teachers also evaluate each candidate using the same forms. The evaluations of faculty and cooperating teachers determine whether the candidate can continue on in the clinical experience. If there are reservations, those are noted, and the student meets with the supervisor, cooperating teacher, and Director of Teacher Internships to plan for improvements. These forms are aligned with the PRAXIS III criterion, Ohio Educator standards, and the Ohio Standards for Teachers. The forms used for clinical practice are used primarily to provide both a formative and summative picture of a candidateâs performance.
Rubrics and SPA assessments.
The unit supplies each cooperating teacher and supervisor with materials designed to assist them in their assessment of individual candidates. Those materials include Praxis III referenced suggestions, a quick reference card for observation, and a student teaching rubric which outlines and delineates each of the 15 program outcomes listed on the form. Also, course specific or SPA specific assessments are utilized in upper-level field experience courses and in clinical practice to provide additional evidence of content knowledge, skills, and dispositions. The departmentâs candidate dispositions form (CHIPPER) is triangulated by providing input from the candidate, the cooperating teacher, and the supervisor. The disposition form is used in every field and clinical experience.
During the clinical experience, interns are provided opportunities to assess both their candidate dispositions and teaching competency. The dispositions are assessed using the department's Chipper disposition assessment. After the candidate has provided a self assessment, the cooperating teacher and supervisor are provided an opportunity to review and provide their individual input. The interns are also evaluated on their ability to be self-reflective about their teaching effectiveness as it relates to student learning. Through various conferences that are held by the cooperating teacher and supervisor, candidates provide areas for improvement as well as strength.
Frequency and conduct of assessments.
During clinical practice the school-based clinical faculty and university supervisor are required to observe and provide formal feedback to the candidate a minimum of five times during the semester. Each observation is completed in duplicate form with the original going to the candidate and the copy to their permanent file. Each observation addresses the domains of preparation, environment, teaching and professionalism. Halfway through the clinical practice, the candidate, university supervisor, and the school-based clinical faculty meet for a formal, collaborative, mid-term evaluation (formative evaluation form). The formative evaluation measures both quantitative and qualitative evaluation of performance conducted and a conversation around strengths and goals for the second half of the clinical practice also occurs. At the end of the clinical practice, both the university supervisor and the school-based clinical faculty complete a Student Teaching Summative Evaluation. All formative and summative evaluations are placed in the candidateâs credential file in the Department.
3. How is time for reflection and feedback from peers and clinical faculty incorporated into field experiences and clinical practice?
To meet our goal of preparing each candidate to become a compassionate professional educator, all candidates must demonstrate a commitment to knowledge, teaching competence, and student learning. Our conceptual framework defines character as moral strength, essential quality, and reputation. Although development of these traits is an intra-individual matter, the department looks for outward manifestations through the candidateâs ability to become a responsible, compassionate servant leader. In every field, methods clinical, and internship experience, both the cooperating teacher and the university supervisor assess the development of these traits.
Candidates also demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and dispositions for helping all students learn through focused reflection. Reflection is built into the lesson planning template, and candidates are expected to evaluate each lesson, their teaching, and the learning demonstrated by students. In addition, a culminating reflection assignment is built into each methods block where candidates ponder the bigger picture of their development as compassionate professional educators. Candidates reflect on their growth during the methods block and set goals for improvement and professional development. These reflections are assessed, using a standard rubric, by the faculty in whose course the reflection is attached, and the score is entered into the unit assessment system database.
During the internship experience, candidates reflect regularly on a series of core value items and on questions correlated with the Praxis III criteria. The core values items include questions on the ethics, tasks, modeling, and integration of teaching and provide candidates opportunities to demonstrate integration of faith, learning, and life from a biblical worldview perspective. The Praxis III questions allow candidates to analyze and evaluate specific aspects of their teaching and to assess the quality of the experiences they are providing for all students. The reflection questions may be found on pages 33-34 of the Internship Handbook and on pages 30-31 of the Guide to Field/Clinical Experiences which can be found in the virtual resource room.
During their clinical internship, candidates are required to attend all professional seminars conducted by the Education Department. These meetings provide a rich opportunity to reflect in community on professional and instructional issues that occur during clinical practice. Seminars include:
- Orientation and training (Cooperating teachers, candidates, and supervisors)
- Career Services professional services (i.e. Resume and Professionalism)
- Licensure (Application, Procedures, Renewal, and Restrictions)
- Interview E-Portfolios
- Networking with the School Librarian
- TESOL Strategies (Theory)
- TESOL Strategies (Practice)
- Legal and Safety Issues (Due Process)
- Preparing for Interviews
- First Year Teacher
Candidates are provided the opportunity to assist the department in assessing its effectiveness by providing reflections on both their preparation for teaching and their field and clinical experience supervision. This data can be reviewed in section 3c.7. in chart format.
Advanced candidates will be required to reflect upon their clinical/field experiences as part of the course requirements of those courses that have an associated clinical/field experience. These reflections will be reviewed and assessed by the M.Ed. faculty and submitted by the candidate via LiveText.
4. What data provide evidence that candidates demonstrate the knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all students learn in field experiences and clinical practice?
As the goal of the department for each candidate is to prepare them to become compassionate professional educators, all candidates are required to demonstrate a commitment to knowledge, teaching competence, and student learning. In its stated description of Character (Dispositions), the conceptual framework defines character as moral strength, essential quality, and reputation. In short, sound moral constitution. Though the development of these qualities is basically an internal matter, the department looks for outward manifestations of these qualities through the candidateâs ability to become responsible, compassionate servant leaders. In every field experience, both the cooperating teacher and the university supervisor evaluates the development of these traits. Evidence of examples of their development is documented on the CHIPPER disposition form. All formative and summative evaluations address knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions as aligned by PRAXIS III rubrics. Summative evaluation data is entered at the conclusion of each semester and can be accessed through CedarInfo under the heading of Curricular Transactions titled Teacher Education Program Assessment Data.
The action research completed by advanced candidates will be assessed by the professor of the M.Ed. course that requires some form of clinical/field experience focusing on teaching strategies that will ensure that all students can learn. This is especially addressed in the EDU 6400 Intervention Strategies and Techniques course and it's corresponding clinical/field experience.
5. What is the process for candidates to collect and analyze data on student learning and reflect on those data and improve learning during clinical practice?
The unit provides its candidates with a course in assessment which addresses value added education. This course provides the background needed to be able to develop a method of determining the learning level of their students prior to instruction. This allows the candidates to structure lessons and units which address these needs. Upon completion of the unit or lesson, the candidate can use the data gathered to see if learning truly occurred. Students are expected to use the data to improve each students opportunity to be provided with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to be a successful learner.
The assessments used by those professors who teach advanced candidates during their clinical/field experiences will include items that will assess the candidates ability to assess student learning. This will be especially addressed in the EDU 6250 Statistical Reasoning course and it's corresponding clinical/field experience.
6. What differences, if any, exist in the ways candidates develop and demonstrate their knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions to help all students learn in field experiences and clinical practice in programs for other school professionals, off-campus programs, and distance learning programs?
This is not applicable to Cedarville since the university does not currently conduct any off-campus or distant learning programs.
7. (Optional) One or more tables and links to key exhibits related to the development and demonstration of knowledge, skills, and professional dispositions for helping all student learn could be attached here. Data in tables should be discussed in the appropriate prompt of 3c. (Links with descriptions must be typed into a Word document that can be uploaded here. The number of attached exhibits should be limited in number; BOE members should access most of the exhibits in the unit's electronic exhibit room.)
Optional: 1. What does your unit do particularly well related to Standard 3?
Embedded nature of field experience.
The unit is very proud of the field experience component embedded in each individual course for each licensure program. Beginning with the Education Profession (Contemporary Christian Schools) and continuing until the capstone clinical experience (Teacher Internship), all field experiences are connected to both individual programs and unit requirements.This provides a seamless application of knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Since each field experiences is supervised by the course instructor, strategies and methods taught as well as practices modeled on campus can be implemented and reinforced in the field.
Coherence and alignment.
Alignment of all field experience and clinical practice assessments is another strength of the unit. Candidates are assessed on the same 15 candidate proficiencies from early field experiences all the way through clinical practice. Cedarville teacher candidates truly âliveâ these candidate proficiencies and growth of individual candidates is easily tracked.
Rich diversity of field placements.
The unit is fortunate to have access to a rich variety of school settings, and each candidate has the opportunity to work with youth coming from a wide variety of cultural, ethnic, and socio-economic backgrounds. Urban, rural, private, and public schools are located in the immediate area, so all candidates experience different educational settings with a variety of organizational, curricular, and instructional practices.
In the M.Ed. program we believe that our courses provide advanced teaching theory and pedagogy which the candidates can then immediately use in an action research clinical/field experience that is tied to the course. The direct connection between learning and doing is very powerful and our advanced candidates appreciate the "practical" nature of our M.Ed. courses.
Optional: 2. What research related to Standard 3 is being conducted by the unit?
The unit already has a vital commitment to becoming a globally focused education department. Cedarville University's Education Department has made a definite commitment to global education and citizenship The unit currently sends approximately 30 students overseas each year to every continent. Several of the faculty have already initiated partnerships in a variety of countries in the world. Previous teacher candidates have completed clinical practice South Korea, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Japan, Germany, Australia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, and Kenya just to name a few. The unit believes very strongly in the benefits of exposure to cultural diversity during clinical practice and will continue to support future distance student teaching programs.
Use of technology to support field supervision.
This academic year, 2008-2009, the unit sought to increase the use of technology to collect data during field observations of clinical practice. Laptop computers are being used by some supervisors to record lesson observations and to provide immediate feedback to candidates to improve clinical practice. The unit is currently experimenting with the use of the eCOVE observation program by the Director of Teacher Internships.
Extended field placements.
During the 2008-2009 academic year, the unit has decided to gather information and research the possibility of beginning to use the Co-Teaching model of teacher internship that has been implemented by St. Cloud State University. The unit will identify those key faculty who have an interest in the model, along with the Director of Teacher Internships and will seek to receive the training that is necessary in order to be able to initiate the model. By the fall 09 semester, it is our hope to be able to place over 50% of the seniors in the same classroom(s) and with the same cooperating teacher(s) during their final field experience, as they will work with during their clinical practice.
The following research has been conducted in regards to our overseas program by Dr. Brenda MacKay, Dr. Michael W. Firmin, and Ruth L. Firmin:
- Firmin, M., Firmin, R., MacKay, B. "Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching." Education 128:1 (Fall 2007): 138 - 147
- Firmin, M., Firmin, R., MacKay, B. "Extrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching." Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research 2:2 (Winter 2008): 91 - 99
- Firmin, M., Firmin, R., MacKay, B. "Extra Curricular Life of Overseas Student-Teachers." Journal of College Teaching & Learning 5:1 (January 2008): 79 - 86
- Affective Responses of Overseas Student Teachers The Journal of College Teaching and Learning Vol. 4 Num. 12 Dec. 2007 pps. 1-8
- Firmin, M., Firmin, R., MacKay, B. "Affective Responses Of Overseas Student-Teachers." Journal of College Teaching & Learning 4:12 (December 2007): 1 - 8
All M.Ed. candidates are required to complete a Research Thesis or Research Project.